The female infertility is the inability to achieve pregnancy causes affecting women. Approximately 30% of couples who have problems conceiving are due to the female factor and 15-30% to mixed factors (male and female). Below we will explain what the most common causes of female sterility are.
Female sterility by ovarian factor
The first step necessary to achieve pregnancy is the union of the ovule and sperm through fertilization. In a natural way, it is necessary that ovulation (release of an ovum) occurs so that fertilization is possible.
In cases in which there is female sterility by ovarian factor, there is some abnormality in the menstrual cycle that prevents regular ovulation of mature ovules of good quality. Among the most common cases of ovarian factor are:
- Anovulation (ovulation does not occur), as in the case of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
- Menopause and early menopause.
- Endometriosis, since one of the problems it causes is that it affects the quality of the ovules.
Depending on what the source of sterility and severity, may be necessary to insemination Artif l, an in vitro fertilization (IVF) or even ovodonationfor pregnancy.
Female sterility caused by problems in the fallopian tubes
For fertilization to occur, it is necessary that the egg and the sperm meet. For this, it must be possible to pass through the fallopian tubes. In cases where the tubes are obstructed, we are facing sterility due to tubal factor. One of the most common causes of this type of alteration are some sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), such as those caused by the bacteria chlamydia or gonorrhea, which cause pelvic inflammation (PID).
The most reliable way to diagnose this type of sterility is through a hysterosalpingogram, a diagnostic test that allows us to study the permeability of the fallopian tubes.
In these cases, pregnancy can be achieved through an in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment.
The cervical factor as a cause of female sterility
In cases where the sperm can not pass through the cervix to reach the uterus, it is also not possible for fertilization to occur. It may be due to the presence of very thick, acidic mucus or inflammatory substances that hinder the passage or survival of sperm. It can also be due to anatomical alterations.
In these cases, it will also be possible to achieve pregnancy through artificial insemination or IVF.
Uterine causes of female sterility
Uterine factors that can cause female infertility can be:
- Problems of endometrial receptivity that prevent the implantation of the embryo in the uterus. In many cases it can be diagnosed by a test of endometrial receptivity, which also allows embryos to be transferred at the most appropriate time.
- Presence of myomas, polyps or uterine malformations that make it difficult for the embryo to implant or even that the pregnancy does not evolve correctly. In some cases, it may be necessary to treat these anomalies surgically.
These alterations can cause implantation failures and repeat abortions.